SAT

>> Saturday, August 7, 2010

The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test) is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a non-profit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still administers the exam. The College Board claims the test can assess a student's readiness for college. The test was first introduced in 1901, and its name and scoring have changed several times.

The current SAT Reasoning Test, introduced in 2005, takes three hours and forty-five minutes, and costs $45 ($71 International), excluding late fees. Possible scores range from 600 to 2400, combining test results from three 800-point sections (math, critical reading, and writing).


Getting Started in SAT Prep

Most high school students are told they need to take the SAT and many are told that they need to "get ready" for it, but nobody seems to tell the vast majority of students where they need to start and what they need to do. Everything you need to know is available online. The problem is there is no systematic procedure or checklist to help you navigate the start-up process - until now! Student Information - Go to the College Board website and click SAT. Become VERY familiar with the information on ALL the links that pertain to you. Parent Information - There is a section for parents on the website. Have your parents review the information on this site.
Online Practice - Take the Online Practice Questions. Don't short-cut yourself on this. Make sure you read each link associated with these pages so you thoroughly understand how the SAT will ask questions. Read each question, select your answer, and review the answer explanations to see how you did. Keep track of which ones you got correct and which ones you didn't.



Download SAT / Tes Potensi Akademik for (CPNS) Test



  1. Excercises of Tes Potensi Akademik for Public Servants (CPNS) Test (10 sample courses with good solution)



Practice Test - Download the SAT Practice Test and the scoring sheet, and take the test. We recommend you print the test out and take it a pencil, and grade your test.
The College Board website is at http://www.collegeboard.com.

1. Get a user account and have your parents get one.

2. SAT Question of the Day - this keeps your brain in the SAT Mode - thinking about it every day.

3. Note the testing dates and the deadlines for registering

4. Go through the Skill Insights and Answers Imagined section online

5. Get the newsletters for both you and your parents

The College Board site also has My College Quick Start, College Search resources, and help with Financial Aid.






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Maturity Scales

Working with that CEO, I developed a model called the ACL Life Cycle. Understanding and using the ACL Life Cycle has proven enormously beneficial to clients depending on an M&A strategy for continued growth.

The ACL Life Cycle

The ACL Life Cycle describes the maturation process of companies who grow substantially through acquisitions and mergers. Using the ACL model, we can clearly identify the company's current position. Knowing that position, and then looking forward at the company's financial objectives through the lens of their business strategies, the specific actions that are needed become clear. Those actions can then be formed into an executable plan with associated performance measures, and managed through completion to bring the overall enterprise to heightened levels of financial performance. It is important for acquisition-oriented executives to understand the major phases and characteristics of the ACL Life Cycle.
Businesses who have survived one or more acquisitions and/or mergers are usually left with some degree of disintegration among their processes and systems. A company's success in reaching the financial objectives of the merger or acquisition is directly correlated with the degree to which that disintegration has been replaced by a set of business processes and information systems that are common enough to generate enterprise-wide leverage. Implicit in that commonality is enterprise-level direction and guidance, manifested in company-wide business strategies and performance measures that align all of the combined business units. These businesses move, in this post-acquisition or post-merger environment, from an acquisition-based operating model to one characterized by shared services and a general commonization, to a stage where the enterprise "whole" really is able to become something greater than the sum of its business unit "parts". It is more than the typical cost-reduction synergy anticipated in most of these transactions; it is a new platform for innovation, and an even higher level of innovation-based leverage.
Companies who experience substantive growth as a result of business acquisitions typically follow the ACL life cycle. ACL in this context stands for: Acquisition, Commonization, and Leverage. Many companies never leave the first stage of this maturity scale, and still more remain at the second stage. The most successful companies are usually those who recognize the importance of moving through all three stages, and consistently implement a structured process for doing so.
All companies experience pressures that push them toward decentralized operations, including idiosyncrasies of specific market niches served, the uniquenesses of isolated business processes, unusual needs of specific customer populations, and natural organizational entropy. At the same time, most of the companies that are successful in achieving the financial performance objectives established for the newly merged enterprise manage to overcome those challenges, electing to pursue the advantages of leverage, including:
broad synergistic brand recognition, enabling cross-selling, bundling of products and services, and improving revenue
interchangeability of business process resources, enabling the company to reduce its asset base
commonality and scalability in equipment / skills / facilities, facilitating innovation and growth into additional markets
higher utilization of business assets, reducing unit cost
lower levels of redundancy, resulting in reduced operating costs
These companies also typically find that maintaining compliance with financial reporting standards such as Sarbanes-Oxley requirements are enhanced as a result of strengthened internal controls.
Some companies make a deliberate decision to remain "holding companies", which simply buy and sell diverse businesses that have only marginal relationships with one another. These conglomerates prefer to manage the portfolio through buying and selling components, and allowing the leadership teams at the individual companies to manage ongoing operations from strategy through execution. Companies that benefit most from understanding the three stages of the ACL Life Cycle are those companies who have decided to focus on a single core industry - Aerospace & Defense, Automotive, Chemicals and Polymers, Textiles, Electronics, Telecommunications, Consumer Products, Medical Equipment producers, Healthcare providers, and Financial Services providers are all good candidates.
The Acquisition Stage of the ACL Life Cycle
Companies in the Acquisition Stageof their life cycles are usually focused on revenue growth, and capturing market share. They are characterized by high levels of autonomy in management, in the reporting of site-level data to the corporate parent, and in the design of their business processes and systems. Companies who remain in this stage for long periods of time following acquisitions usually act as holding companies, with the corporation allowing individual divisions or sites to operate almost as independent companies with their own P&L, strategic plans, and market-facing branding. Often, companies in the Acquisition stage lack a common vision of the future of the overall business, and tend to operate at cross-purposes among the operating units. Manufacturing companies in the acquisition stage are usually characterized by redundancies in raw materials, equipment, staffing, and other business resources. Because manufacturing companies are relatively material-intense, a great deal of cost can be tied up in raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods. Since acquisition stage companies have so little visibility between business units, there is little opportunity for them to reallocate these assets in order to use them effectively. As a result, the most costly resources remain the most underutilized. In addition, acquisition-stage companies have not centralized the management of even commodity-level business processes, such as finance, human resources, and information technology. This lack of centralization leaves additional inefficiencies in place around accounting staff, employee benefits provider subscriptions, business software applications, data centers, and computing equipment.
Telecommunications companies in the acquisition stage also have unrealized opportunities for greater leverage from their business assets, but these more often take the form of redundancies in network equipment, network coverage, retail outlets, partner agreements related to the sale of their products, and interconnection agreements with other carriers. In addition, acquisition stage telecom companies often have a substantial amount of unrealized leverage in the lack of integration among the data bases and information of their various divisions that could enable shared service operations for commodity-type processes such as billing and cross-selling of products and services. Like manufacturing companies, telecom companies in the acquisition stage also typically have unexploited opportunities around the consolidation of data centers and related equipment and staffing.
Healthcare providers in the acquisition stage usually find opportunities in different areas of their businesses, because of the differing cost structure of their operations. The bulk of their costs and their opportunities while in the acquisition stage of maturity in the ACL Life Cycle are related to employee salaries & benefits, and to medical supplies and drugs. It is less common for these businesses to be able to effectively share inventories and equipment, since the nature of their business is rooted in community health care that requires local service provision. The opportunities that do exist, which are typically not exploited well in acquisition stage health care companies, are related to centralizing commodity type business processes such as finance, human resources, and information systems, and leveraging required service and supply procurement across the enterprise.
Financial Services providers, such as banks, brokerages, credit unions, financial planning companies and tax & audit services exhibit yet another cost profile, with the largest elements typically including personnel and occupancy costs. In these businesses, like health care provision, being where the customers are is critical. The companies' ability to understand the changing demographics and match up their branches as well as their skills to the targeted customer base is often a differentiator between the companies that succeed and those that fail. Financial services providers who are still in the acquisition stage of maturity in the ACL Life Cycle often do not have the commonality in fundamental business processes and systems to readily reconfigure their operations to meet the changing needs of their marketplace. Their acquisitions or mergers have enabled them to grow horizontally, typically into adjacent markets. However, lacking an adequate foundation of commonality in processes and systems, there is substantial money left on the proverbial table as a result of ineffective resource deployment, and delays in the reporting of operational performance data that would enable the company to be more responsive. These companies also fail, in their acquisition stage, to take advantage of their larger purchasing power to gain leverage around purchased services spanning items as diverse as employee health care and branch-level office supplies.
The Commonization Stage of the ACL Life Cycle
Companies in the Commonization Stage of their life cycles have usually awakened to the value of focusing on Return on Net Assets (RONA) and Return on Invested Capital (ROIC). In order to begin to capture improvements in these areas, companies in the Commonization Stage often turn to shared service models of operations for selected business processes and systems. Strategies and performance measures begin to crystallize around common themes that span multiple operating units or divisions. Among the areas of focus for a shared service model in this stage are Finance (A/R, A/P, General Ledger, and Financial Reporting), Human Resources (Payroll, Benefits, and Employment Records), and Information Technology (Computer Hardware, Network Administration, and selected Software Applications Management). Some companies in the Commonization Stage also move Procurement and other aspects of Materials Management to a shared service model, enabling the corporation to more effectively leverage its broadest possible purchasing power.
Manufacturing companies in the commonization stage of maturity typically have shared services in place for commodity types of business processes such as finance, human resources, and information systems management. Toward the end of the commonization phase, centralization of work deployment and capacity utilization as well as process quality emerge as companies begin to deploy common processes and systems in customer requirements management, enterprise requirements planning, manufacturing execution systems, and distribution management systems.
Telecommunications companies in the commonization stage of maturity also typically have shared services in place for commodity types of business processes such as finance, human resources, and information systems management. As they advance in maturity through this stage, telecoms also become aware of the available leverage in centralizing the management of some of their most valuable assets. However, unlike the manufacturer's raw material focus, for telecommunications operations those elements are things like spectrum licenses, network equipment, connection agreements, partner agreements, distribution centers, and retail outlets. Centralizing the management of those assets to identify overlaps and redundancies enables telecoms to emerge from the commonization stage with much more effectively leveraged business assets, providing broader market coverage with a lower total asset base and generating much higher earnings on that consolidated foundation.
Healthcare companies in the commonization phase of maturity find substantial benefit in the commonization and centralization of their commodity type processes and systems. This is primarily because of the impact on cash flow and earnings when the employee base is reduced through shared services, and employee benefits and supplies are both leveraged in terms of the broader purchasing power of the company following a business acquisition of significant size. However, there is also an especially rich opportunity available to healthcare companies in the commonization stage that stems form the leverage available related to insurance coverage - not for the employees directly, but covering the potential liability of the company itself. This category of cost is typically about the third largest slice of the pie, and significant reductions there can translate quickly to a meaningful earnings impact.
Financial services providers in the commonization stage of the ACL Life Cycle, like healthcare providers, often find substantial benefit in the commonization and centralization of their commodity type processes and systems. With roughly half of their cost of operations wrapped up in employee salaries and benefits, there is an opportunity for meaningful impact on cash flow and earnings when the employee base is reduced through shared services, and employee benefits and supplies are both leveraged in terms of the broader purchasing power of the company following a business acquisition or merger. The next significant area for financial service providers in the commonization stage is the capability for rapid reconfiguration of the business based on enterprise-wide visibility of operational data and market intelligence.
The Leverage Stage of the ACL Life Cycle
Companies in the Leverage Stage of their life cycles are usually embarked on a fierce drive toward adding real value. They are relentless in their efforts to fully utilize the assets of the entire corporation, driving out redundancy and its associated costs. They are then able to pivot on the fulcrum of those more agile processes and systems to implement innovations that foster organic growth resulting in greater market share, greater revenue, and improved earnings for their shareholders. Leverage Stage companies also establish a structured and repetitive process of assimilating new businesses, gathering and incorporating market intelligence into company-wide strategies, and innovating on the basis of these new combinations to capture additional market segments. These companies are characterized by coordination and centralization of major business functions such as the planning and allocation of R&D, production work, inventories, raw material purchases, personnel, and factories & equipment. They centrally manage a broad spectrum of common business processes and systems, including customer requirements management, product data management, enterprise requirements planning, manufacturing execution systems, and logistics management. They are constantly changing, evaluating and configuring business assets to meet future market needs, acquiring and developing new businesses, and shedding assets that no longer fit their evolving model.
Manufacturing companies in the leverage stage of maturity typically have shared services in place for most of the critical business processes of their company, having reached beyond the commodity level processes and into those which deliver the most value to their customers. Examples include sales & marketing, order entry & customer service, capacity planning and management, production scheduling and shop floor control, and distribution requirements planning. As they move through the leverage stage of the ACL Life Cycle, some of these companies leverage the commonality of their processes and systems to produce innovative new products and services, identify additional market opportunities, and develop industry-changing relationships that reach through their supply chains.
Telecommunications companies in the leverage stage of maturity also have shared services in place for most of the critical business processes of their company, including the seamless provisioning (often called "flow-through provisioning" by industry insiders) of all telephonic services to customers stemming from a single telephone conversation responding to an individual inquiry about a service. This type of capability is only enabled when all of the information from what have historically been disparate data bases is available in an intelligent form through excellent systems integration, based on exceptional levels of commonality and strength in enterprise-wide business processes.
Healthcare companies in the leverage stage of maturity have typically discovered and implemented leverage-based improvements in their major cost structure elements as a result of enterprise-wide information visibility flowing from systems integration and centralized management of critical business processes. Health care companies generally also have uniquely challenging business conditions related to three other areas where leverage level operations can be a powerful tool.
Most health care organizations are spending a substantial amount of money in this regard, with training and documentation of company polices and safety-related practices requiring an increasing amount of company attention. The integration of systems and commonization of processes in a leverage stage health care company offers opportunities to more quickly incorporate internal best practices, externally imposed business requirements, and feedback about lessons learned across the entire health care organization regardless of geographic dispersion. Commonization and centralized management here can result in substantially lower cost, and more importantly, substantially higher and more uniform levels of employee safety.
The integration of customer data, and effectively interfacing a common set of enterprise-wide processes and systems with outside service providers such health maintenance organizations and insurance carriers, substantially reduces the amount of bad debt in leverage level health care companies.
This area is tricky because of legislation related to patient privacy and guidelines recently established for the maintenance and communication of patient medical information. However, one of the fundamental challenges faced by health care providers is the absence of available medical history, particularly when a patient is admitted to an emergency room or urgent care facility. When critical business processes and information systems for the management of this information are brought to an effective level of commonality, the rapid dissemination of the needed information can be greatly improved, while patients' expectations around the privacy of their information are still met.
Financial services companies in the leverage stage of maturity, like health care companies in some ways, must balance the needs of differing local customer geographies against the advantages of centralized management in critical business processes and systems. There is real value in allowing some latitude to local branch officers and customer-facing staff such as loan officers to accommodate the unique circumstances involved in specific cases. However, these companies often find that a significant advantage of the leverage provided by enterprise-wide commonization of processes and systems is the ability to see the nuances of differing markets at a corporate level, and recognize broader trends among those different markets more quickly and clearly than they could before. This improved visibility, in turn, enables management to reconfigure their service offerings, redeploy resources such as sales dollars, and organize sales campaigns for those specific markets more quickly than they could previously.
The best of these companies, regardless of what industry they occupy, utilize their common platform of processes, systems, and information to understand the needs of their customers in unique ways, and fluidly translate those needs into the features of their products and services. The enterprise-wide leverage they achieved as a result of carefully and skillfully handling the post-merger or post-acquisition integration of processes, systems, and data provided the platform from which innovation launched them to new levels of performance. Examples could as easily be provided for companies in pharmaceuticals, retail operations, or the food & beverage industry.



Maturity Scale for IT Data Management


This following blog post has turned into more than just a post. It’s more of a paper. In any case, in the post I am trying to capture a number of concepts that are defining the IT data management market.

When I am talking about IT data management, I am talking about the over-arching market that covers anything from log management to security information management and security event management.

Any company or IT department/operations can be placed along the maturity scale (see Figure 1). The further on the right, the more mature the operations with regards to IT data management. A company generally moves along the scale. A movement to the right does not just involve the purchase of new solutions or tools, but also needs to come with a new set of processes. Products are often necessary but are not a must.

The further one moves to the right, the fewer companies or IT operations can be found operating at that scale. Also note that the products that companies use are called log management tools for the ones located on the left side of the scale. In the middle, it is the security information and event management (SIEM) products that are being used, and on the right side, companies have to look at either in-house tools, scripts, or in some cases commercial tools in markets other than the security market. Some SIEM tools are offering basic advanced analytics capabilities, but they are very rudimentary. The reason why there are no security specific tools and products on the right side becomes clear when we understand a bit better what the scale encodes.


The Maturity Scale

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  1. Maturity Scales Test for Public Servants (CPNS) Test



Let us have a quick look at each of the stages on the scale. (Skip over this if you are interested in the conclusions and not the details of the scale.)

* Do nothing: I didn’t even explicitly place this stage on the scale. However, there are a great many companies out there that do exactly this. They don’t collect data at all.
* Collecting logs: At this stage of the scale, companies are collecting some data from a few data sources for retention purposes. Sometimes compliance is the driver for this. You will mostly find things like authentication logs or maybe message logs (such as email transaction logs or proxy logs). The number of different data sources is generally very small. In addition, you mostly find log files here. No more specific IT data, such as multi-line applications logs or configurations.
* Forensics / Troubleshooting: While companies in the previous stage simply collect logs for retention purposes, companies in this stage actually make use of the data. In the security arena they are conducting forensic investigations after something suspicious was noticed or a breach was reported. In IT operations, the use-case is troubleshooting. Take email logs, for example. A user wants to know why he did not receive a specific email. Was it eaten by the SPAM filter or is something else wrong?
* Save searches: I don’t have a better name for this. In the simplest case, someone saves the search expression used with a grep command. In other cases, where a log management solution is used, users are saving their searches. At this stage, analysts can re-use their searches at a later point in time to find the same type of problems again, without having to reconstruct the searches every single time.
* Share searches: If a search is good for one analyst, it might be good for another one as well. Analysts at some point start sharing their ways of identifying a certain threat or analyze a specific IT problem. This greatly improves productivity.
* Reporting: Analysts need reports. They need reports to communicate findings to management. Sometimes they need reports to communicate among each other or to communicate with other teams. Generally, the reporting capabilities of log management solutions are fairly limited. They are extended in the SEM products.
* Alerting: This capability lives in somewhat of a gray-zone. Some log management solutions provide basic alerting, but generally, you will find this capability in a SEM. Alerting is used to automate some of the manual trouble-shooting that is done among companies on the left side of the scale. Instead of waiting for a user to complain that there is something wrong with his machine and then looking through the log files, analysts are setting up alerts that will notify them as soon as there are known signs of failures showing up. Things like monitoring free disk space are use-cases that are automated at this point. This can safe a lot of manual labor and help drive IT towards a more automated and pro-active discipline.
* Collecting more logs and IT data: More data means more insight, more visibility, broader coverage, and more uses. For some use-cases we now need new data sources. In some cases it’s the more exotic logs, such as multi-line application logs, instant messenger logs, or physical access logs. In addition more IT data is needed: configuration files, host status information, such as open ports or running processes, ticketing information, etc. These new data sources enable a new and broader set of use-cases, such as change validation.
* Correlation: The manual analysis of all of these new data sources can get very expensive and too resource intense. This is where SEM solutions can help automate a lot of the analysis. Uses like correlating trouble tickets with file changes, or correlating IDS data with operating system logs (Note that I didn’t say IDS and firewall logs!) There is much much more to correlation, but that’s for another blog post.

Note the big gap between the last step and this one. It takes a lot for an organization to cross this chasm. Also note that the individual mile-stones on the right side are drawn fairly close to each other. In reality, think of this as a log scale. These mile-stones can be very very far apart. The distance here is not telling anymore.

* Visual analysis: It is not very efficient to read through thousands of log messages and figure out trends or patterns, or even understand what the log entries are communicating. Visual analysis takes the textual information and packages them in an image that conveys the contents of the logs. For more information on the topic of security visualization see Applied Security Visualization.
* Pattern detection: One could view this as advanced correlation. One wants to know about patterns. Is it normal that when the DNS server is doing a zone transfer that you will also find a number of IDS alerts along with some firewall log entries? If a user browses the Web, what is the pattern of log files that are normally seen? Patter detection is the first step towards understanding an IT environment. The next step is to then figure out when something is an outlier and not part of a normal pattern. Note that this is not as simple as it sounds. There are various levels of maturity needed before this can happen. Just because something is different does not mean that it’s a “bad” anomaly or an outlier. Pattern detection engines need a lot of care and training.
* Interactive visualization: Earlier we talked about simple, static visualization to better understand our IT data. The next step in the application of visualization is interactive visualization. This type of visualization follows the principle of: “overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand.” This type of visualization along with dynamic queries (the next step) is incredibly important for advanced analysis of IT data.
* Dynamic queries: The next step beyond interactive, single-view visualizations are multiple views of the same data. All of the views are linked together. If you select a property in one graph, the selection propagates to the others. This is also called dynamic queries. This is the gist of fast and efficient analysis of your IT data.
* Anomaly detection: Various products are trying to implement anomaly detection algorithms in order to find outliers, or anomalous behavior in the IT environment. There are many approaches that people are trying to apply. So far, however, none of them had broad success. Anomaly detection as it is known today is best understood for closed use-cases. For example, NBADs are using anomaly detection algorithms to flag interesting findings in network flows. As of today, nobody has successfully applied anomaly detection across heterogeneous data sources.
* Sharing views, patterns, and outliers: The last step on my maturity scale is the sharing of advanced analytic findings. If I know that certain versions of the Bind DNS server tend to trigger a specific set of Snort IDS alerts, it is something that others should know as well. Why not share it? Unfortunately, there are no products that allow us to share this knowledge.

While reading the maturity scale, note the gaps between the different stages. They signify how quickly after the previous step a new step sets in. If you were to look at the scale from a time-perspective, you would start an IT data management project on the left side and slowly move towards the right. Again, the gaps are fairly indicative of the relative time such a project would consume.
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Civil Servant Study Guide



A civil servant or public servant is a civilian public sector employee working for a government department or agency. The term explicitly excludes the armed services, although civilian officials will work at "Defence Ministry" headquarters. The term always includes the (sovereign) state's employees; whether regional, or sub-state, or even municipal employees are called "civil servants" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are civil servants, county or city employees are not.

Many consider the study of civil service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" (sometimes called "QUANGOs") may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its Civil Service or Public Service.

No state of any extent can be ruled without a bureaucracy, but organizations of any size have been few until the modern era. Administrative institutions usually grow out of the personal servants of high officials, as in the Roman Empire. This developed a complex administrative structure, which is outlined in the Notitia Dignitatum and the work of John Lydus, but as far as we know appointments to it were made entirely by inheritance or patronage and not on merit, and it was also possible for officers to employ other people to carry out their official tasks but continue to draw their salary themselves. There are obvious parallels here with the early bureaucratic structures in modern states, such as the Office of Works or the Navy in 18th century England, where again appointments depended on patronage and were often bought and sold.

An international civil servant or international staff member is a civilian employee that is nominated by an international organisation.[1] These international civil servants do not resort under any national legislation (from which they have immunity of jurisdiction) but are governed by an internal staff regulation. All disputes related to international civil service are brought before special tribunals created by these international organisations such as, for instance, the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO.

Specific referral can be made to the International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) of the UN, an independent expert body established by the United Nations General Assembly. Its mandate is to regulate and coordinate the conditions of service of staff in the United Nations common system, while promoting and maintaining high standards in the international civil service.

Civil Servant Study Guide

Government agencies are streamlining the civil service examination process by drifting from offering hundreds of different tests for every job title thus making their civil service examination more standard. By reducing the civil service tests to a few standardized tests allows the government to cut down on the cost associated with administering the civil servant exam.

A civil servant study guide is an important tool for anyone preparing for one of these types of tests. Knowledge, skills, logical thinking as well as time management are important in overcoming that barrier to your job. A good civil servant study guide should involve a step by step instruction on how to master all parts of the exam process.
Getting one of these types of preparation material will give you the best tips and advice on how to prepare and tackle your particular examination. Good preparation material should give you all the right information concerning what to expect on your examination. This enables you to discover the tried and true tips that are practical and suitable for passing your examination.
And remember a quality civil servant study guide should include relevant sample questions and answers from those which have been used on past tests so that you can be sure you are getting the most timely information available in the market. The particular subjects vary with the particular job in question. And a civil servant study guide will help you get you familiar with the various subjects and questions formats most likely to be on your actual examination.
The goal of taking civil service test is to pass. And don't forget, success is more about beating the test itself and securing that dream job rather than knowledge of specific content. And a civil servant study guide is specifically designed towards helping you pass your test. Furthermore, it helps you to prepare and successfully take the test by teaching you how not to waste your time studying useless information which will not help you on the test day. And finally it helps you in learning techniques to effectively choose the correct answers to the test questions without guessing.
In the end just remember that a quality civil servant study guide is the ideal tool for you to prepare for exam day.

In Indonesia Civil servants or PNS (Pegawai Negeri Sipil) are workers in the public sector who work for the government of a country. Workers in non-departmental public bodies sometimes also classified as public servants. In the United States, the civil servant is defined as "any designated position on the executive branch, legislative, and judicial branches of the Government of the United States, except for certain positions in the uniformed services. In the early 19th century, based on the spoils system, all the bureaucrats depend on politicians elected in the elections. It was amended in Act Pendleton Civil Service Reform in 1883, and now all public servants in the United States designated and recruited based on expertise, although in certain civil service as head of the diplomatic missions and agents, executives filled by people who are politically appointed. In Indonesia, Civil service consists of:

1. Civil Servants (PNS)
2. Members of the Indonesian National Army (TNI)
3. Members of the Indonesian National Police (INP)

As in England and France, civil servants in Indonesia is a career system. They were selected in the examination of certain selection, obtain salary and special allowances, as well as a pension.

However, there are certain positions that are not occupied by civil servants, for example:

President, governors, regents, and mayors - elected directly by the people through elections

o Minister - appointed by the President

Sub-district and village chief is a civil servant, while the mayor is not elected directly by civil servants because the locals.

Chairman of the RW and RT

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Vocational School - Technical



A technical is a type of improvised fighting vehicle, typically a civilian or military non-combat vehicle, modified to provide an offensive capability. Technical common definition as A technical is a type of improvised fighting vehicle, typically a civilian or military non-combat vehicle, modified to provide an offensive capability. It is usually an open-backed civilian pickup truck or four-wheel drive vehicle mounting a machine gun, light anti-aircraft gun, recoilless rifle, or other support weapon.

The term technical describing such a vehicle appears to have originated in Somalia. It is thought to derive from use by the Red Cross there who were often forced to bribe local militias to avoid being attacked and robbed. The money used for such a bribe would be budgeted as a "technical expense" to hide its true nature. Technicals have also been referred to as battlewagons, gunwagons, or gunships.

Among irregular armies, often centered around the perceived strength and charisma of warlords, the prestige power of technicals is strong. According to one article, "The Technical is the most significant symbol of power in southern Somalia. It is a small truck with large tripod machine guns mounted on the back. A warlord's power is measured by how many of these vehicles he has.




Download Soal Latihan UN SMK 2011 for Vocational School - Technical Program




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Vocational education

Vocational education or vocational education and training (VET) prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.

Vocational education may be classified as teaching procedural knowledge. This can be contrasted with declarative knowledge, as used in education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education. Vocational education can be at the secondary or post-secondary level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocational education can be recognised in terms of recognition of prior learning and partial academic credit towards tertiary education (e.g., at a university) as credit; however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of higher education.

Up until the end of the twentieth century, vocational education focused on specific trades such as, for example, those of automobile mechanic or welder, and it was therefore associated with the activities of lower social classes. As a consequence, it carries some social stigma. Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system of learning.

However, as the labor market becomes more specialized and economies demand higher levels of skill, governments and businesses are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicly funded training organizations and subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives for businesses. At the post-secondary level vocational education is typically provided by an institute of technology, or by a local community college.

Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism, information technology, funeral services and cosmetics, as well as in the traditional crafts and cottage industries

Vocational Schools Offer Entry-Level Education Training

Individuals who want to learn to be teachers may be prime candidates for education training. Vocational schools and community colleges offer a vast array of undergraduate classes to help future educators to learn the basics of the teaching profession, and to prepare for advanced education degrees.
There are a number of good schools and colleges offering training in education, including a few good online schools. Students just starting out can seek classes in a variety of related topics, such as childhood education, science, mathematics, language arts, social studies, and others. The idea is to gain experience and knowledge that can form a solid foundation for a future career in teaching.
While classroom teachers K-12 and higher are generally required to have Bachelor or Master degrees in education, it is possible for qualified undergraduates to teach in pre-schools, vocational schools, and trade schools. You could qualify for positions teaching continuing education classes; or you could apply for a position as a teaching assistant with the right educational background and a minimum of an Associate degree.
What is your ultimate goal? If you are looking to become a college professor, you will very likely be required to possess a terminal degree (Master's or Doctorate Degree in Education). But, if you are willing to begin with an entry-level teaching position, you may be able to get there with some preliminary training from a vocational school or college. That could help you qualify to apply for elementary education degree programs at a college or university.
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Vocational School - Non Technical


Non Technical is agreements, conditions, and/or contractual terms that affect and determine the management activities of a project. See some requirements categories.

In Korea Vocational high schools offer programmes in five fields: agriculture, technology/engineering, commerce/business, maritime/fishery, and home economics. In principle, all students in the first year of high school (10th grade) follow a common national curriculum, In the second and third years (11th and 12th grades) students are offered courses relevant to their specialisation. In some programmes, students may participate in workplace training through co-operation between schools and local employers. The government is now piloting Vocational Meister Schools in which workplace training is an important part of the programme. Around half of all vocational high schools are private. Private and public schools operate according to similar rules; for example, they charge the same fees for high school education, with an exemption for poorer families.


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The number of students in vocational high schools has decreased, from about half of students in 1995 down to about one-quarter today. To make vocational high schools more attractive, in April 2007 the Korean government changed the name of vocational high schools into professional high schools. With the change of the name the government also facilitated the entry of vocational high school graduates to colleges and universities.

Most vocational high school students continue into tertiary education; in 2007 43% transferred to junior colleges and 25% to university. At tertiary level, vocational education and training is provided in junior colleges (two- and three-year programmes) and at polytechnic colleges. Education at junior colleges and in two-year programmes in polytechnic colleges leads to an Industrial Associate degree. Polytechnics also provide one-year programmes for craftsmen and master craftsmen and short programmes for employed workers. The requirements for admission to these institutions are in principle the same as those in the rest of tertiary sector (on the basis of the College Scholastic Aptitude Test) but candidates with vocational qualifications are given priority in the admission process. Junior colleges have expanded rapidly in response to demand and in 2006 enrolled around 27% of all tertiary students.

95% of junior college students are in private institutions. Fees charged by private colleges are approximately twice those of public institutions. Polytechnic colleges are state-run institutions under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour; government funding keeps student fees much lower than those charged by other tertiary institutions. Around 5% of students are enrolled in polytechnic colleges.

Trade, Career, Or Vocational School - What's the Difference?

Whether you choose to go to a trade school, career school, technical school or vocational school, the purpose of each type of school is to teach its students specific job skills in their chosen field of study. There are vocational schools for Health care professions such as Medical Billing & Coding, Pharmacy Tech, Nursing, Ultrasound Technician and others. These programs focus on providing students not only with essential book education, but hands-on training that allows graduates to enter the job market feeling confident in their ability to perform job duties on day one.
Career schools for those who want to work in artistic fields are also available. Creative types that prefer not to attend 4-year degree programs requiring a lot of general education classes that don't apply to their artistic ambitions can complete diploma, certificate and associate degree programs in Graphic Arts, Interior Design, Animation, Web Design and Game Development a number of career schools. Some of these programs can even be completed through online study.
The programs you find at trade schools are typically for careers in what are called "skilled trades" such as HVAC, Auto Mechanics, Plumbing, Welding and Avionics. Other skilled trades include Cosmetology and Electrician.
There are schools that offer all of these programs, and others that focus on one specific trade. A good vocational/career/trade school is accredited and provides student services such as job placement upon program completion.
Schools offering vocational training are ideal for those seeking specific career training that does not require a 4-year degree. If you are looking for a training program, Vocational School Searcher can help.



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Language


Language is a term most commonly used to refer to so called "natural languages" — the forms of communication considered peculiar to humankind. By extension the term also refers to the type of human thought process which creates and uses language. Essential to both meanings is the systematic creation, maintenance and use of systems of symbols, which dynamically reference concepts and assemble according to structured patterns to communicate meaning. The scientific study of language is called linguistics.

A language is a system of signs (symbols, indices, icons) for encoding and decoding information. Since language and languages became an object of study by ancient grammarians, the term has had many and different definitions. The English word derives from Latin lingua, "language, tongue," "tongue," a metaphor based on the use of the physical organ in speech. The ability to use speech originated in remote prehistoric times, as did the language families in use at the beginning of writing. The processes by which they were acquired were for the most part unconscious.

Dril of UN SMA / MA - 2011 for Language Program (Paket 1)



Indonesia Language
English Language
Mathematics
Arabic Language
Japanese Language
Mandarin Language

Important Notes
If you need more Drill of UN 2011 (Paket 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) completed with the good solutions and simple Theory according kisi-kisi UN 2011 please visit for Drill of Indonesia Language, Mathematics, English Language

Dril solution of Latihan Soal UN SMA / MA - 2011 (Paket 1)



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Systems Science

Characteristics of a Good Language Learning Program

When designing a language learning plan, it pays to look at existing programs that have worked for other individuals. After all, incorporating strategies and techniques that have characterized effective language study should increase your chances of getting good results in your own path towards acquisition.
What are some of these characteristics?

1. Accessibility. If those who need to learn a language can't get their hands on it, then it won't be of much use, would it? That's why good language learning programs are always accessible. Look at your favorite second language learning software: priced just right and easy to acquire over the web.

2. Achievable Goals. What kinds of results is the language material promising? Are they significant enough to spend time on? More importantly, though, can they be achieved within the frame of the proposed schedule and activities? Good learning language programs aim for sensible, achievable results; not fantasty-based meanderings.

3. Flexibility. Different people will have different preferences for language learning. Does the material have the flexibility to adapt to most of these needs?

4. Use of Resources. Does the program make room for the use of other resources or does it force you to stick to one? There are many benefits to programs that help language students make the most of materials available elsewhere.

5. Culture. There is a strong connection between language and culture. Materials that understand that and uses it to aid instruction are generally better, because they give you a more well-rounded learning experience.




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Religious


Religion is the belief in and worship of a god or gods, or in general a set of beliefs explaining the existence of and giving meaning to the universe, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs.

Aspects of religion include narrative, symbolism, beliefs, and practices that are supposed to give meaning to the practitioner's experiences of life. Whether the meaning centers on a deity or deities, or an ultimate truth, religion is commonly identified by the practitioner's prayer, ritual, meditation, music and art, among other things, and is often interwoven with society and politics. It may focus on specific supernatural, metaphysical, and moral claims about reality (the cosmos and human nature) which may yield a set of religious laws and ethics and a particular lifestyle. Religion also encompasses ancestral or cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as personal faith and religious experience. The development of religion has taken many forms in various cultures, with continental differences.

Dril of UN SMA / MA - 2011 for Religious Program (Paket 1)



Indonesia Language
English Language
Mathematics

Important Notes
If you need more Drill of UN 2011 (Paket 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) completed with the good solutions and simple Theory according kisi-kisi UN 2011 please visit for Drill of Indonesia Language, Mathematics, English Language

Dril solution of Latihan Soal UN SMA / MA - 2011 (Paket 1)



Download Drill Solution of Religious Program

Study World Religion Online

The application of religion plays a huge role in the way many individuals across the world handle everything from conflict to professional work. Understanding a religion and how it is continually applied to modern society can be utilized in a variety of professions. Studying all aspects of religion can be completed through online programs in world religion.
Study features many topics like religion and theology to give students a large base of concepts. Online education is diverse allowing students to take their knowledge and apply it to a number of different careers. World religion studies teach students:

history
tradition
society in regards to today's religions

To understand different cultures courses focus on specific aspects of a religion. These aspects can include:

rituals
moral systems
beliefs to show students how they affect today's culture

The concepts and principles learned are taught from a global perspective making it a good base for careers like journalism and politics. Online learning uses study to explore religion through its multiculturalism rather than the actually theology or faith.
Religious studies can be pursued from the associate's degree level to the doctorate level. Unless students want to enter a career as religious leaders, teachers, or researchers an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree is optimal. These programs allow students to transition into other fields. It is common for students to enter a world religion program to gain a solid foundation in religion with the pursuit to work in a chosen career as faith-driven professionals. On the other hand understanding all cultures in regards to their religion can prepare students to work directly with foreign people in business, government, and more.
Students that can only dedicate a small amount of time to education should consider entering a two-year associate's degree program online. Schooling is dedicated to helping students develop their professionalism through a comprehensive program. Students can expect to examine texts and religious values.

Social science
World civilization
Religious doctrine
Public speaking

These are courses that make up a typical online program. A course on world religion provides study on the major religions of the world. Examinations of the five major religions, which are:

Christian
Islam
Judaism
Buddhism
Hinduism

These help students learn the affect religion has on modern society. Programs usually place this type of course in the beginning of study to provide students with a strong base for advanced courses. Continuing education provides students with more training about religion and its role in society.
An online bachelor's program provides students with a well-rounded education through general and degree specific subjects. Study centers further on religion and the role it plays in society. Other areas of exploration include learning about historical context of religion and the nation. Religious philosophy, modern religious theory and political religious theory are some online courses that have students learning about religion and culture. A religious philosophy course focuses on the values and ethics that drive religion. Discussions on history and politics examine the impact of these things on religion and vice versa. Other topics covered include life after death, fate, free will, and spiritual rebirth.



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Natural Science



The Term of natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the universe, which is understood as obeying rules or laws of natural origin.

The term natural science is also used to distinguish those fields that use the scientific method to study nature from the social sciences, which use the scientific method to study human behavior and society; from the formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, which use a different (a priori) methodology; and from the humanities.

Dril of UN SMA / MA - 2011 for Science Program (Program IPA) (Paket 1)



Indonesia Language
English Language
Mathematics
Physics
Biology
Chemistry

Important Notes
If you need more Drill of UN 2011 (Paket 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) completed with the good solutions and simple Theory according kisi-kisi UN 2011 please visit for Drill of Indonesia Language, Mathematics, English Language, Physics, Chemistry, Biology

Dril solution of Latihan Soal UN SMA / MA - 2011 (Paket 1)



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Systems Science

In the modern world various disciplines are increasingly becoming interdisciplinary in nature. An interdisciplinary study of various subjects offers you a great scope for solving several intractable problems. Systems science is just the right approach to carry out a detailed study of various diverse disciplines. It offers remedies to various complex situations. You may use a variety of methods, tools and techniques to apply systems theories. However, without any formal education in the concerned discipline, it is unimaginable to use the above-mentioned systems tools and techniques. The subject as an interdisciplinary field is rising in popularity. So, if you are desirous of studying the discipline, go ahead but not without proper information.

What Is Systems Science

It is an interdisciplinary area, which includes studying complex systems in society, science and nature. It focuses on developing interdisciplinary foundations for use in areas including biology, engineering, social sciences and medicines. It is a scientific discipline, which is based on a range of thinking systems that include the chaos theory, control theory, complex systems, cybemetics, systems biology, system psychology, systems ecology, systems engineering and sociotechnical systems.

Why Study Systems Science

If you are planning to study this interdisciplinary subject, make sure that you have the right information about its scope. These days system concepts find an extensive use for both research as well as applied purposes. The demand for professionals in this field is considerably high. Both the government and the industry need expert systems professionals, who can manage complicated technical and social systems.

How To Study Systems Science


There are several universities, colleges and institutes that offer specialized courses in the concerned discipline. You may find a number of courses at the certificate, graduate, postgraduate and doctoral level. Choose a course according to your requirements and interests. Of course, you need good textbooks and reference books during your study at the university or the institute. Just do not worry since a wide range of books is available on the concerned subject.

The books are really helpful to supplement your studies and have a detailed study of systems science. Brand new books may be costly and you may not be able to afford them, however, you can always look for the used books. This is truly a cost effective solution to your problem because the used books are much cheaper than the new books. Moreover, the used books are easily available. You can find them at various book stores on or near your campus. Since you have to manage your rising tuition fees and other on and off campus expenses, buying the used books may decrease some of your financial burden.

Systems science theories greatly contribute to the development of knowledge within the boundaries of academic disciplines and the application of such growing knowledge to areas concerning mathematics, business administration, engineering, social and natural sciences.




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Social Sciences



The social sciences are the fields of academic scholarship that explore aspects of human society. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences. These include: anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, linguistics, political science, international studies and, in some contexts,[2] psychology. Subjects such as international relations and social work are concerned primarily with application and do not constitute social sciences per se.

The term may be used, however, in the specific context of referring to the original science of society established in 19th century sociology. Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber are typically cited as the principal architects of modern social science by this definition.[3] Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader, classical sense. In modern academic practice researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining quantitative and qualitative techniques). The term "social research" has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.

Dril of UN SMA / MA - 2011 for Social Sciences Program (Paket 1)



Indonesia Language
English Language
Mathematics
Sociology
Geography
Economics

Important Notes
If you need more Drill of UN 2011 (Paket 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) completed with the good solutions and simple Theory according kisi-kisi UN 2011 please visit for Drill of Indonesia Language, Mathematics, English Language, Sociology, Economics, and Geography

Dril solution of Latihan Soal UN SMA / MA - 2011 (Paket 1)



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Social Sciences Offering Interesting Study Programs and Career Opportunities

Social sciences include disciplines that are not part of natural sciences. Political science, sociology, journalism, anthropology, linguistic, history, behavioral science, and women's studies are some of the study programs offered by a social science department in any university or college. These study programs are quite popular, because they offer great career opportunities.
In ancient times, mathematics, history, and literature were all considered the same. However, with the passage of time, social science became a distinct field of study. Today these subjects have their own theories, methodologies, and study principles. These sciences are quite different from natural sciences, such as mathematics, in the way they are taught and in their area of focus.
Study Of Society
Social sciences explore the human society from various angles. For example, political science explores the development and functions of government. One of the ways it explores the development of government is by studying the behavior of various rulers throughout the history.
Sociology, on the other hand, studies human behavior and pattern of human interaction within the society. In sociology, students study how human behavior is influenced and governed by factors like, religion, society, and laws.
Therefore, those who are interested in studying society, government, or human behavior should take up one of the social sciences as a major subject. If you are not quite sure whether to choose political science or sociology, you can always talk to a counselor who will be able to guide you properly.
Career Options For Political Science Graduates
These study fields are quite popular, interesting, and offer great career opportunities. For example, political science graduates can become future politicians or civil servants. With a graduate degree, one can become a high school teacher. Those who are interested in becoming a professor in political science at a college or university will need to first get a masters and PhD degree in that subject.
A degree in political science, which is one of the favorite subjects among social sciences, also opens door to becoming a legislative aid, campaign manager, district attorney, or judge.
A degree in sociology also opens many doors to graduates. Business, counseling, journalism, politics, correction facilities, and administration are just the areas that a sociology graduate can pursue as a career.
It is very clear that all the study fields in social science are rewarding in terms of learning experience and career options. Moreover, social science study programs are offered in almost every college or university. Besides opting for degree programs in social sciences, students can also opt for diploma or certificate programs. Whatever study program you choose, make sure that it matches your study interests and career dreams.
The Cost Factor
Though there are plenty of social science study programs to choose from, yet many students cannot pursue them due to cost factor. You can apply for scholarships or financial aid to pay for your tuition cost. As far as saving on college textbooks is concerned you can buy secondhand books. Better yet, you can shop online for your college textbooks. Online stores offer cheap college textbooks and can help you save hundreds of dollars every semester.
With proper planning and budgeting, you will be able to pursue your studies in social sciences and enjoy a great career in the future.



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Primary School

>> Friday, August 6, 2010

A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).In some countries, and especially in North America, the term elementary school is preferred. Children generally attend primary school from around the age of four or five until the age of eleven or twelve.

Indonesia Primary School in the form of SD (Elementary School) and MI (Islamic Elementary School). Elementary schools (abbreviated SD; UK: Elementary School) is the most basic level of formal education in Indonesia. Elementary schools taken within six years, starting from grade one to grade six. Currently sixth graders are required to follow the National Examination (formerly Ebtanas) influencing graduation. Elementary school graduates can continue their education to junior secondary school (or equivalent).

Elementary school students are generally aged 7-12 years. In Indonesia, every citizen aged 7-15 years years should follow the basic education, namely primary school (or equivalent) six years and junior high school (or equivalent) three years.

Primary schools maintained by the government or private. Since the implementation of regional autonomy in 2001, the management of primary schools (SDN) in Indonesia, which was previously under the Ministry of National Education, is now the responsibility of local government districts. While the National Education Ministry only acts as a regulator in the field of national education standards. Structurally, the public primary schools is a technical unit of education service districts.

UASBN is Final Exam in Primary School in Indonesia, here the Drill please download for free, yes absolutely free resources :



Download Soal Latihan UASBN SD / MI 2011




  1. Download Drill of Indonesia Language


  2. Download Drill of Natural Science (IPA)


  3. Download Drill of Mathematics




Important Notes
If you need more Drill of UN 2011 (Paket 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) completed with the good solutions and simple Theory according kisi-kisi UN 2011 please visit for Drill of Indonesia Language, Mathematics, and IPA


Download Solutions of Soal Latihan UASBN SD / MI 2011


  1. Download Solution of Indonesia Language


  2. Download Solution of Natural Science (IPA)


  3. Download Solution of Mathematics




In the United States, the term primary school is used in a general way to describe a school housing the primary grades, usually meaning kindergarten (ages five to six) to fourth grade (ages 9 to 10), fifth (ages 10 to 11), or sixth grade (ages 11 to 12), though this is more commonly referred to as an elementary school. Very few schools in the US actually use the term primary school as part of their school name and such schools are generally private schools, serving very young children.

Some county school systems have begun to establish primary schools that are separate from (and often located within close proximity of) elementary schools and house only kindergarten through second grades.

Primary School Aged Children Struggling With Key Stage 2 Maths

Maths can be a daunting and confusing subject to learn. It is a progressive subject, and once a child falls behind and struggles to understand certain Math topics, this leads to difficulties in learning more advanced Math.
It is vital that the foundations of Maths are understood fully (i.e. addition, multiplication, division, subtraction, fractions, units etc) to be able to progress to more difficult Maths.
Often parents have negative memories of Maths from their own school days, which lead them to feel inadequate as home tutors. You can help your child to learn Maths using various methods; you don't have to have an A-level in Maths, as has been highlighted by the Channel 4 program "Dispatches" in February this year.
Any methods you choose should be addressed in a calm and pleasant manner. Your child will not learn if he/she is upset or stressed. Learning should be a positive experience. Don't obsess about what your child cannot do. If a topic is proving difficult to learn, do not show your child that you are frustrated, just tell yourself and your child that that exercise brought them one step closer to understanding it and tackle it another day. Try to plan your home tutor lessons; it's not a good idea to plan a thirty-minute lesson when your child has just finished double Maths lesson at school.
If your child is finding a topic frustrating and is getting upset, take a short time-out. Your child may bring home some Maths homework that you find difficult or can't remember how to solve. Don't panic! Take a look at the problems before you try to help your child. Purchasing educational software and workbooks can help tremendously, especially if you feel that your child doesn't receive enough homework or your child is struggling with Maths. Every lesson does count, providing that learning session is delivered in a calm and positive manner.
You can make a positive difference in your child's knowledge and with time and patience their Maths skills will flourish.

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Senior High School


High school is used in some parts of the world, particularly in Scotland, North America and Oceania to describe an institution that provides all or part of secondary education. The term "high school" originated in Scotland with the world's oldest being the Royal High School (Edinburgh) in 1505. It spread to the New World owing to the high prestige enjoyed by the Scottish educational system. (In the eighteenth century, Scotland had the world's most literate population.) A number of countries engaged Scottish educators to develop their state education systems.

The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, the English High School founded in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1821. The precise stage of schooling provided by a high school differs from country to country, and may vary within the same jurisdiction. In all of New Zealand and Malaysia along with parts of Australia and Canada, high school is synonymous with secondary school, and encompasses the entire secondary stage of education.


In Australia, the term "high school" refers to secondary school from Years 7 to 12. Although this can vary from state to state, some secondary schools begin at year 8 instead. High school immediately follows primary (elementary) school; therefore, a Year 7 Australian high school student is sometimes as young as 11. In the Australian Capital Territory, the term "high school" generally refers to Years 7-10, whereas the term "College" is used for Years 11-12 (as they are generally separate schools to high schools).

Students may choose to leave school at Year 10, or at ages 15 to 17, depending on the state, or continue through Year 12. In urban areas, almost all students finish Years 11 and 12 in order to align with university requirements. In the state of New South Wales, the School Certificate takes place at Year 10, followed by the Higher School Certificate (HSC) in Year 12 and other states generally follow this schedule but with different names for the qualifications awarded.

A student's final examination marks are indexed into the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) in all states but Queensland. This index is usually the sole factor considered when applying for most university courses. The ATAR was only introduced in 2009 (in NSW), and previously each state calculated its own final high school rank, such as the Universities Admission Index (UAI) in NSW and Equivalent National Tertiary Entrance Rank (ENTER) in Victoria. It is possible to qualify for a high school-completion certificate such as the HSC, but not for an ATAR, though this is very uncommon.

Australia has comparatively strict school uniform guidelines enforced across all years in almost all high schools - public and private, and accompanying safety-wear guidelines for subjects such as chemistry and industrial technology. Different uniforms usually apply for summer and winter, as well as a separate sports uniform and sometimes a separate 'jersey' for year 12. A formal uniform, including blazer and tie, is required on designated occasions. It is forbidden to mix and match different styles of uniform, and students not in correct uniform (including seasonal, formal, and sports uniforms) are punished with detention and suspension. A scarce few days in the year may be designated as 'mufti days' or 'free dress days', meaning everyday clothing may be worn, often only with a gold-coin payment ($1 or $2) to the SRC (Student Representative Council). Uniforms are generally not required in "colleges" (Years 11-12) in the Australian Capital Territory, and everyday clothing may be worn instead.

In Indonesia Sekolah Menengah Pertama or abbreviated by SMP, and the other part which is senior high school, known locally as Sekolah Menengah Atas and in other terms, Sekolah Menengah Umum which abbreviated as SMA and SMU. There is also one institution similar to SMA, but they were focusing on one specific career major which is known as Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan or SMK. Unfortunately, citizens of Indonesia currently looking down of SMK graduates and they were not preferable to be attended by students. Junior high is a must for all citizens of Indonesia while Senior high is not a must as Indonesia currently applying nine years of study to all citizens. It is managed by the Department of Education in Indonesia and stated in the Indonesia constitution where every citizens have the right to study. Graduate students from SMP and SMA or SMU and also SMK are achieving different educational certificate. All students of Indonesian high school must passed in the National Examination held by BSNP (Badan Standarisasi Nasional Pendidikan), an organization under the Department of Education of Indonesia.

UN SMA (National Exam for SMA and MA) is Final Exam in Senior High School in Indonesia, here the Drill please download for free, yes absolutely free resources :



Download Soal Latihan UN SMA / MA 2011




  1. Download Drill for Language Program (Program Bahasa)


  2. Download Drill for Natural Science Program (Program IPA)


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Download Solutions of Soal Latihan Soal Latihan UN SMA / MA 2011


  1. Download Drill Solution for Language Program (Program Bahasa)


  2. Download Drill Solution for Natural Science Program (Program IPA)


  3. Download Drill Solution for Social Science Program (Program IPS)


  4. Download Drill Solution for Religious Program (Program Keagamaan)



Importance of High School

There are certain milestones in your life that you would like to preserve for years to come. The senior year of high school is one of those times. There are many wonderful events that happen during this time period some of which are a really big deal and some are not as important. All seniors look forward to graduating from high school and the many parties to attend celebrating this special event in their lives. Many students, particularly females enjoy having their senior pictures taken. It is a time when you can choose an outfit or many outfits, get your hair and makeup done to look your best for the photographs. Selecting the right Cincinnati Photography studio is necessary to capture the perfect photo. This time can also be very difficult for many students having to decide what they want to do with their lives after high school graduation such as choosing a college, maintaining your grade point average among many other things. There are counselors to help you make some important decisions such as college planning and graduation.
High school events may not seem as important at this very moment, but when you look back in time it will be those moments that you always remember. A yearbook is great collection of senior memories. Academic achievements, athletic competitions, proms, theater, etc. are moments in your history that you will want to stand out, as will graduation. Being a senior is a huge responsibility, you are a role model to underclassmen as well as anyone that looks up to you.
The high school years goes very quickly so make sure you make the best of it. You can do this by making sure that you receive the best education, establish good friendships, and have a good yet responsible time. If you do not get the best grades that you possibly can, you will have a hard time getting into college. Colleges cannot see what you are capable of; they only see what you have shown you can do in previous years. High school friendships and relationships may seem unimportant. You will always remember the people you meet in school. High School is one of the most influential times of your life. It does not matter how big the event is, it will stay with you forever. Senior year is the last year of your schooling where you do not have to worry about other stresses of life. Once you get into college you have no one to rely on besides yourself. If you fail in high school people will be there to help you try again, in college you do not have that kind of support. That is why living your high school career to the fullest is a great idea. The little experiences count almost as much as the bigger ones do.






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Junior High School


A junior school is a type of school which caters for children, often between the ages of 7 and 11. In Indonesia for SMP / MTs level often called with Junior High School is a type of school which caters for children, often between the ages of 11 and 14. In Australia, a junior school is usually a part of a private school that educates children between the ages of 5 and 12.

UN SMP or National Examination of Junior High School (SMP / MTs) is Final Exam in Middle School in Indonesia, here the Drill please download for free, yes absolutely free resources! :



Download Soal Latihan UN SMP / MTs 2011




  1. Download Drill of Indonesia Language


  2. Download Drill of English Language


  3. Download Drill of Natural Science (IPA)


  4. Download Drill of Mathematics




Important Notes
If you need more Drill of UN 2011 (Paket 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) completed with the good solutions and simple Theory according kisi-kisi UN 2011 please visit for Drill of Indonesia Language, Mathematics, English Language, and IPA


Download Solutions of Soal Latihan UASBN SD / MI 2011


  1. Download Solution of Indonesia Language


  2. Download Solution of Natural Science (IPA)


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In South Australia a junior primary school, it is where a child will begin their education, usually in or before the year level preceding Year 1. Depending on the school, a child will move to the main primary school between the ages of 7 and 10.

In most primary schools, the junior primary is located within the same buildings and grounds as the primary school, although some junior schools are located on an adjacent or separate.

And In the United Kingdom a junior school is usually a small school serving a particular locality, and is also used by independent schools to refer to the nursery and primary school services they offer.

A junior school forms part of the local pattern of provision for primary education. Most junior schools cater for pupils moving from infant schools from the September following their seventh birthday. Pupils join in Year 3, and stay at the school for four years, leaving at the end of Year 6 when most pupils are aged 11. These four years form Key Stage 2 in the English education system. At the end of this time, most pupils will move to a secondary school.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a significant number of junior schools were abolished in favour of 8-12 or 9-13 middle schools, and while some of these remain open today the majority of them have been abolished in favour of a return to traditional 7-11 junior schools.

Middle School - Junior High Graduation Gifts

Before summer truly begins a special occasion must take place for it to really be summer vacation, and that's graduation. Each Graduation is special in its own way because it shows a completion of a milestone in a person's life and Middle School/Junior High Graduation is defiantly a ceremony that has to be commemorated. A graduation gift for a Middle School/Junior High Grad has to be something that your pre-teen or new teen will enjoy.
Game systems always make great gifts for all occasions especially graduation. After all the hard work put in over the year a game system is a gift that will help them unwind from all the exams and homework and kick off the summer. The Nintendo Wii is one of the top game systems and make a fantastic gift especially as a bundle pack. Buy has great Nintendo Wii Bundles for your grad that will keep them happy and active through out the summer. Another great game system bundle are DS/ DSi/ DS Lite from Tiger Direct. Tiger Direct has a wonderful variety of DS/ DSi/ DS Lite Bundles so your pre-teen or new teen can enjoy their games wherever they are.
Everyone loves music, though it might not be the same, so a great gift for your grad is an iPod Nano from Sears. Sears has a wide variety of Nano's that will be enjoyed by your grad each day from the moment it's received. With their iPod Nano your grad can enjoy his or hers favorite music anywhere they go without bothering anyone. If your grad likes to move and likes to do tricks then a skateboard is the perfect gift for them. Kmart has a huge variety of skateboards that will fit your grads style and soon has them getting air like Tony Hawk.
Middle School Graduation Gifts should be fun for your pre-teen or new teen. They did and accomplished a lot to graduate school and deserve something wonderful for all their hard work.


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